The term metagenome refers to the genetic material which is present in a sample taken from the environment, and is made up of the genomes (genetic information) of an array of individual microorganisms.
Also known as methanogens, these types of organisms produce methane as a by- product of their metabolism, which among other things, contributes to flatulence production in humans. They thrive in low oxygen environments such as the human gut.
A microbe is a tiny microscopic organism, such as a bacterium, fungus or virus. There are trillions of microbes in the human microbiome.
A vast army of microbes that protect us against germs, break down foods to release energy, and produce vitamins to keep us healthy.
A microbiome encompasses the entirety of microbes in a defined habitat, including all of their genetic make-up and their environmental interactions. For example; a human microbiome (all of the microbes that we share our body with) includes approximately 100 trillion microbes, outnumbering our own cells by 10 to 1.
The gut microbiota is with humans from birth and affects function throughout the body. The human microbiota consists of a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other single-celled animals that live in the body. The microbiome is the name given to all of the genes inside these microbial cells.
‘Microbiota’ refers to the microorganisms (both probiotic and pathogenic) residing in the gastrointestinal tract. An imbalance in the microbiota is known as dysbiosis.
Microflora generally refers to the microorganisms (including both good and bad bacteria) that reside in the digestive tract. As the term ‘flora’ refers to plants, however, the term microbiota is now considered to be more correct than microflora.
The international standard way of measuring blood glucose levels are in terms of a molar concentration, measured in mmol/L.
Mucosa, also known as the mucous membrane, refers to the moist lining of internal, hollow organs such as the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.
The term ‘mycobiome’ refers to the fungal populations in a given environment. Studies have demonstrated the existence of diverse fungal colonies throughout the human body, and suggest their importance in both health and disease. There are many different genera of fungi, including: Candida, Fusarium, Cladosporium and Aureobasidium.